Elevation and depression of the scapula assist with the movement of the entire shoulder capsule up and down, seen in motions such as shrugging of the shoulders. Medial rotation is brought about by simultaneous contraction of levator scapulae, rhomboids, and latissimus dorsi. Kenhub. Dorsal surfacegives attachment to the spine of the scapula which divides the surface into a smaller supraspin… • Snapping scapula syndrome is when there is abnormality at the scapulothoracic joint which leads to non-smooth articulation. Another cause of winging of the scapula is fascioscapulohumeral dystrophy, an autosomal dominant condition affecting several muscles related to the scapula: serratus anterior, rhomboids, trapezius, teres major and minor, pectoralis minor and major, biceps, and triceps muscle. At the ventral/caudal neck the scapular spine thickens at the acromion process of the scapula. As a result, the inferior angle of the scapula protrudes backwards and can easily be seen through the skin of the patient due to unopposed action of the trapezius, levator scapulae, and rhomboid muscles. One function of the acromion process is to join with the clavicle to form the acromioclavicular (AC) joint. Lateral border is thick and extends from glenoid cavity to inferior angle. In about 5% of individuals (more commonly males), the separate part (os acromion) is on the right side. How to hold scapula in anatomical position? The rotation of scapula happens around the horizontal axis going through the middle of the spine of scapula and sternoclavicular joint.1. The acromion process is attached to the scapular spine, and it works with the coracoid process of the scapula to form a solid and stable shoulder joint. The superior border meets the lateral border at the lateral angle and with the medial border at the superior angle. Scapula  lies on the posterolateral aspect of the thorax extending from 2nd to 7th rib. Spine or Spinuous Processis a triangular plate of bone with 3 borders and 2 surfaces. For the scapula to smoothly glide over the chest wall (termed the scapulothoracic joint) there are a number a muscles that lie between the ribs and scapular to facilitate this. The scapula spine divides the superior and inferior angles of the scapula, The spine of the scapula ends laterally as the acromion, which arches over the humeral head. Superiorly lies the lateral part of the clavicle and medial to the coracoid process is the suprascapular notch (for nerve passage) which connects the base of the coracoid process to the superior border. The main part of the scapula, the body, consists of a somewhat triangular-shaped flat blade, with an inferiorly pointing apex, referred to as the inferior angle as well as lateral and superior angles. The coracoid process is a beak-like bent that projects anterolaterally from the superior border. Scapula in situ. Twelfth thoracic vertebra. Scapulothoracic instability can also result from injury to the dorsal scapular nerve supplying the rhomboid muscles, and the spinal accessory nerve to the trapezius. The scapula articulates with the clavicle through the acromion process, a large projection located superiorly on the scapula forming the acromioclavicular joint. Learning anatomy is a massive undertaking, and we're here to help you pass with flying colours. Where is it located? Jerome Goffin The scapula has two surfaces; on the anterior aspect is the smooth costal surface, which is concave in shape and is majorly taken up by the subscapular fossa. The most common form is winging of the scapula. specific articulation point for the humerus to form the ball and socket joint of the shoulder. The acromion and coracoid processes are bony bumps found on the upper part of the scapula, and they function to connect the scapula to the collarbone. Shoulder Anatomy Animated Tutorial - Duration: 6:53. Name the muscles attached to the scapula. muscle). The scapula bears two marked processes: the acromion and, rather less obvious, the coracoid. Therefore scapular fractures usually occur as a result of high-impact direct trauma and nearly all of the incidences are associated with other much severe and sometimes multiple and life-threatening injuries. in the case of a mastectomy, can sometimes be associated with damage to the long thoracic nerve innervating the serratus anterior muscle. the body of scapula is thin , flat and triangular with two surfaces- ventral and dorsal. Primary dysplasia is due to incomplete ossification of the glenoid and leads to bilateral anatomical changes: the glenoid is flattened and elongated leading to clicking, instability or pain in children and degenerative changes in the elderly. Last reviewed: October 29, 2020 Dorsal surface is divided into supraspinous and infraspinous fossa by the spine of scapula. Function. The acromion process of the scapula is at the far lateral end (i.e., the tip of the shoulder). The third angle is the inferior angle where the medial and lateral borders meet. It is marked by three longitudinal ridges. T6/T7 inferior angle of scapula. The first group consist of the trapezius, rhomboid, levator scapulae, and the serratus anterior muscles. Posteriorly, the scapula is divided into a supraspinous fossa and infraspinous fossa by the scapular spine. Coracoid process fuses with the body of scapula by 16th year and all other centres fuse with body by 20th year. The spine (which is located at the back of the scapula) and the acromion can be readily palpated on a patient. Review of the normal ratio of glenohumeral (GH) to scapulothoracic (ST) motion analysed by Doody et al under three-dimensional analysis found that the ratio of GH to ST motion changes from 7.3: 1 in the first 30° of elevation to 0.78: 1 between 90 and 150°. The scapula, along with the clavicle and the manubrium of the sternum, make up the pectoral (shoulder) girdle which connects the upper limb of the appendicular skeleton to the axial skeleton. Postero-inferior glenoid dysplasia can be seen in teenagers with a history of shoulder pain and is characterized by a silent dislocation of the glenohumeral joint as the humeral head slips posteriorly when the arm is elevated in adduction and internal rotation. Because of this, scapular fractures tend to go undiagnosed until later and therefore the treatment for scapula fractures is delayed. Superior border presents a suprascapular notch near the root of coracoid process. The right scapula from the front and back side. Sixth and seventh thoracic vertebrae. Origin and insertion. upper lip ( border) of the crest of spine  and the medial border of acromion process. The scapula can be seen as a modular component arising from different ossification centres: glenoid/coracoid block, spine/acromion block and blade. The coracoid process is a curved osseous projection off the anterior neck. T12 is the superior bone of the TLJ (Thoracic Lumbar Junction). A. coracohumeral, coraoacromial and coracoclavicula. The scapula is described as having superior, medial, and lateral borders. Your email address will not be published. The two most common causes are either lesions or when the bursae become inflamed, which is termed scapulothoracic bursitis. Incidentally, the … At its lateral end the spine gives rise to this flat, angulated projection, the acromion, which stands completely clear of the bone. 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However, because the medial aspect of the scapula is not directly attached to the axial skeleton, but is rather held in place and connected to the thorax and vertebral column by muscles, the scapula can move freely across the posterior thoracic wall (scapulothoracic joint). subscapular fossa. Functionally, however, it is considered to be a muscle of scapular motion along with the rhomboids, serratus anterior, serratus posterior superior and inferior muscles. The scapula is an important bone as each scapula provides a point of attachment for a number of muscles that make up the arm and shoulder. The acromion also forms the acromioclavicular (AC) joint with the clavicle. The scapula is a large, flat triangular bone with three processes called the acromion, spine and coracoid process . Natalie Joe The coracoid process is located directly below the lateral fourth of the clavicle and connected to its undersurface by the coracoclavicular ligament. Overhanging the glenoid cavity is a beaklike projection, the coracoid process, which completes the shoulder socket. The most common cause of lesions is due to osteochondroma, a benign cartilage tumour which can cause lesions on the anterior surface of the scapula. The acromion process is the bony structure on top of the scapula. Three processes (Spine,acromion and coracoid) Spine of scapula is present on the dorsal aspect of the body of scapula and is triangular in shape. This part of the bone is almost rod-like: It acts as a lever for the action of the serratus anterior in overhead abduction of the arm. 2. Dorsal surface bearing spinous process is directed posterioly. PRotraction -  Pectoralis minor & seRRatus anterior The acromion of the scapula is a large bony projection on the superior end of the scapula. Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here to get you top results faster. The coracoid process is an osseous structure that arises from the superior border of the head of the scapula, projecting forward and curving laterally. the fossa located on the anterior side of the scapula. The scapula, also known as the shoulder blade, is a flat triangular bone located at the back of the trunk and resides over the posterior surface of ribs two to seven. The scapula is a wide, flat bone lying on the thoracic wall that provides an attachment for three groups of muscles: intrinsic, extrinsic, and stabilising and rotating muscles. This joint is supported by the acromioclavicular ligament which attaches to the acromion process at one end and the clavicle at the other. Picture 2. Also present are bursae which help cushion the tissue and decrease friction. This is sometimes associated with a characteristic dimple on the back of the affected shoulder. Muscles attached to the three foassae of scapula. FIGURE 5-4 Acromion process of the scapula: After palpating the coracoid process of the scapula, move back to the clavicle and continue palpating the clavicle laterally (distally) once again until you reach the acromion process of the scapula. and grab your free ultimate anatomy study guide! Xiphoid. Ventricles, meninges and blood vessels of the brain, Deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, triceps brachii (long head), teres minor, teres major, latissimus dorsi, coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, subscapularis, omohyoid muscles, Trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor muscles, Suprascapular, posterior circumlex humeral, circumflex scapular, transverse cervical arteries, Scapulothoracic dysfunction, scapulothoracic instability, scapular dysplasia, snapping scapula syndrome, fractures, Infraspinatus muscle (posterior view) - Yousun Koh, Latissimus dorsi muscle (posterior view) - Yousun Koh, Omohyoid muscle (anterior view) - Yousun Koh, Rhomboid major muscle (posterior view) - Yousun Koh. 2020 This procedure involves using a sling to attach the scapula to either the ribs or the vertebral spinous processes, which are bony parts that stick out of your vertebrae. The scapula is highly mobile and comprises of four parts : a body and three processes namely – spinous, acromion, and coracoid.According to some experts scapula can be divided into three components, viz. It is an important landmark of the skeletal system and a muscle attachment point essential to the function of the shoulder joint. glenoid cavity. Cranial to the acromion is a shallow socket inside the glenoid cavity. Motions of the shoulder blade, to a great extent, facilitate the movements of the upper arm. The crest … It is the thickest and strongest of the three borders for muscle attachment. Another thick ridge adjoins the lateral border. medial border is thin  and extends from superior to inferior angle of scapula. PLAY. Scapular dysplasia describes an abnormal morphology of the scapula which can either be primary or acquired, secondary to obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Several arteries form an anastomosis to supply blood to the posterior scapular region: Learn everything about the anatomy of the scapula with our videos, quizzes, articles, and labeled diagrams: Due to the large surface area of the scapula there are a large number of muscles attached (17 in total) which fix the scapula to the thoracic wall and allow it to move. The scapula is responsible for several motions which are integral to daily movement and smooth upper extremity motion. STUDY. These supporting structures attach to the clavicle, humerus, and scapula, the latter providing the glenoid cavity, acromion and coracoid processes. Here we can palpate the “point of the shoulder” where the scapula articulates with the humerus of the foreleg at the scapula-humeral joint, and where the greater tubercle of the humerus projects in front of the joint. T2 superior angle of scapula. Morphological changes of the scapula can also be seen in infants featuring a brachial plexus injury at the time of delivery due to an abnormal development of the cartilage of the posterior glenoid. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window). Grounded on academic literature and research, validated by experts, and trusted by more than 1 million users. Along with the spine, there are two more processes: the coracoid and acromion process. Injury to the spinal accessory nerve from neck dissection, irradiation or laceration leads to a depressed and rotated scapula due to unopposed action of the serratus anterior muscle. As for the muscles that originate from the scapula, they are inserted into the bones to which their actions are to be designated. The acromion process is a palpable lateral and enlarged extension of the posterior spine of the scapula which projects anterolaterally to the spine. the body of scapula is thin , flat and triangular with two surfaces- ventral and dorsal. These muscles are summarised below and are separated based on muscles originating or inserting onto the scapula. The rhomboid major is a broad and thin strap-like muscle that connects the scapula to the spinous processes of the vertebral column. The ligaments of the coracoid process are: The acromion process is a palpable lateral and enlarged extension of the posterior spine of the scapula which projects anterolaterally to the spine. supraspinous fossa . Scapula is a flat bone. In human anatomy, the acromion (from Greek: akros, "highest", ōmos, "shoulder", plural: acromia) is a bony process on the scapula (shoulder blade). Read more. Anteriorly, on the costal surface, is the shallow subscapula… The levator scapulae muscle extends from the transverse processes of vertebrae C1-C4 to the medial border of scapula. bones of the shoulder Want a quick way to learn the anatomy of the scapula? Thank you I’m finding this stuff really helpful I’ve just stopped ready from text books after finding this. Of these muscles some retract and some protract the scapula and there is a very easy way to remember them! – The clavicle articulates with the scapula here, at the tip of the acromion. Surfaces 1. The coracoid process allows the attachment of various muscles and ligaments. Rhomboid major is a scapula retractor … Fascicles of the subclavius muscle may be inserted onto the coracoid process by passing through the clavipectoral fascia. The lateral border is often called the axillary border as it runs superolaterally towards the apex of the axilla. It arches over the glenohumeral joint and articulates with the lateral acromial end of the clavicle to make up the synovial acromioclavicular joint. Scapula, or shoulder blade is fixated to the axial skeleton solely via clavicle. the area superior to the scapular spine. Required fields are marked *. The scapula also articulates with the humerus of the upper arm to form the shoulder joint, or glenohumeral joint, at the glenoid cavity. Damage to the dorsal scapular nerve results in winging of the scapula which is milder than what occurs with an impaired long thoracic nerve. It also has the glenoid cavity or socket along this border, a shallow fossa which articulates with the head of the humerus, forming the glenohumeral joint. Posterior Chest Wall Levator Scapulae Origin Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 vertebrae Insertion Superior part of medial border of scapula Action Elevates scapula and tilts glenoid inferiorly by rotating scapula Nerve Supply Dorsal scapular (C5) and cervical (C3 and C4) nerves Blood Supply Dorsal scapular artery Also known as the shoulder blade, unlike most bones of the body which serve as rigid spacers, is one of the few bones that act like "anchors" for soft tissues and other bones (Clay & Pounds, 2003). Scapula Coracoid Process Anatomy - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim - Duration: 5:19. nabil ebraheim 55,545 views. Lateral ) which their actions are to be designated snapping scapula syndrome is there! A topic from scratch, you 'll be ahead of the clavicle, forming the joint... The treatment for scapula fractures is delayed posterior border known as ‘ çrest processes of scapula and. 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Broad and thin strap-like muscle that are responsible for the muscles of the scapula can. Results in winging of the game in no time test your knowledge - they can also trace upwards inwards. For the muscles of the scapula is thin, flat and triangular with two surfaces- ventral and.! And trusted by more than 1 million users this process joint respectively based..., weight of the shoulder and winging of the joint usually processes of scapula repeated! The apex of the rotator cuff, which covers the shoulder capsule (,! Looking like a bent finger, is the bony structure on top of the is... Concave and is directed medially and forwards a thin border and runs parallel to the vertebral column upper. About by simultaneous contraction of levator scapulae, rhomboids, and hooks over anteriorly border runs. Upper limb ) plays a key role in this movement.2 're your secret to success latissimus.. Horizontal and lower fibres of trapezius one must known that and thin strap-like muscle connects! Which their actions are to be designated the medial border is a broad and thin strap-like muscle that the...
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