The Eastern Front and the Mediterranean The Battle of Stalingrad • Hitler wants to capture Caucasus oil fields and destroy Stalingrad • Soviets defeat Germans in bitter winter campaign - Over 230,000 Germans, 1,100,000 Soviets die • Battle a turning point: Soviet army begins to move towards Germany 2 SECTION NEXT The … Their morale would be completely destroyed and the German army would get complete hold over the oil fields of the Caucasus. General Georgy Zhukov, in The Germans loss of such a vast amount of manpower and equipment seriously hindered the rest of their war in Eastern Europe. Photo from late August 1942. Each street was fought over by hand-to hand combat and areas that had been captured by one side during the day were often re-taken in the night. Their eastern push into the Soviet Union had been so successful. V olgograd sits just above the Caucasus, an industrial city on the west bank of the Volga. I am currently studying for a PhD in History, a subject I am fascinated by. Even though armies were diverted to Stalingrad and even Leningrad, the Germans managed to capture Maikop, and came within 50 miles of Grozny. The … For example, Caucasus campaing , this book mainly focuses on, was largely overlook ,for the Battle of Stalingrad,notwithstanding the main strategic goal of the operation was obtaining the source of oil field in Baku. On the Soviet side, it is believed well over a million Soviet soldiers were killed. They bitterly joked about cap­turing the kitchen but still having to fight for the living room and the bedroom. The strategic importance of railways on the eve of WWI, Protected: Simple History Vehicles of WORLD WAR II COLORING BOOK Volume 1. The Ger­mans called this ever-present, often un­seen urban war­fare Ratten­krieg (“Rat War”). Neither Ger­many nor the Soviet Union could have fore­seen the horror that would face each other at Stalin­grad. Right: German bombers flatten Stalin­grad’s indus­trial center, November 16, 1942. They had made great inroads into the oil fields of the Caucasus (south-west Russia) which could have fuelled the war effort. More than 1,000 tons of bombs were dropped on the city, but Stalin forbade any evacuation from the city, even of children. By September 1942, the German army began to advance on the city. Soviet military operation… At that time the Germans expected that their advance into the Caucasus would be so rapid that the Russians would not be able to severely damage the oil wells, and the … The book's exhaustive detail in numerous battles shed light on event that might have change the the direction of … Likewise, Russians could not let the Germans get hold of the oil fields in the Caucasus - The Russian Army was led by Zhukov with around 1,000,500 men, who were fighting against Paulus' army of 1,011,500 men. Photo from Septem­ber 23, 1942. Battle of Stalingrad, successful Soviet defense of the city of Stalingrad that was a turning point in favor of the Allies in World War II. The objective of this operation was to reach the Caucasus oil fields, and Glantz thinks the Germans could have achieved that, had they only concentrated their forces on this goal (vol. After all the city was an important centre for Soviet Union communications and transport to southern Russia. Stalingrad is bombarded from air by artillery. Some 105,000 enemy pri­soners were led away, most to their deaths. The Battle of Stalingrad … After all, the ferocity of the fighting at Stalingrad shocked the Germans, who were used to the relative ease of their Blitzkrieg tactics. The aim was to disrupt communications between the central regions of the Soviet Union and the Caucasus. Captured German soldiers after the Battle of Stalingrad, January 1943. Stalingrad was men to be part of a large defensive front so that the Germans wouldn't be attacked from the rear while going for the oil fields. Smoke rises due to the explosion. The German army was also low on food and ammunition. However, German forces occupied vast swathes of Soviet territory and industry, and the war was still going fairly well for the Germans. Meanwhile the Russian Army was galvanised by its heroic victory and began to push the Germans back in other parts of Eastern Europe. The Wehrmacht's drive into the Caucasus in August 1942 seemed unstoppable, and taking the oil cities of Maikop, Grozny, and Baku would have solved one of Germany's most serious strategic problems. Six armies of over a million men led by Marshal Zhukov surrounded the city. Soviet Union. This is not to mention the 40,000 civilians killed as well. The Battle of Stalingrad lasted about a year. This left the German army completely outnumbered and surrounded. Germany had launched Operation Barbarossa, its ill-fated invasion of the Soviet Union, in June 1941. A whole army unit was lost and nearly 100,000 Germans were taken prisoner. Things changed on July 9th when Hitler launched a huge attack to take both Moscow and the remaining oil fields in the Caucasus in one move. German guns fired. Stalin­grad was the worst defeat the Soviets in­flicted on Axis forces up to that time. Copyright © 2012–2020 World War II - Day By Day. The defensive front was also ment to protect the supply lines transporting oil back to … Germans plan to capture the Russian oil fields. My main interests include the Second World War and Communism, especially in Russia and the former Yugoslavia. After the Soviet breakthroughs in the region around Stalingrad, the German forces in the Caucusus were put on the defensive. Instead, the successes of the summer and the symbol of "Stalingrad" itself lured them into … -Germans wanted the oil fields of the Caucasus region-begins sept. 1, 1942-Germans capture much of the city in street fighting-nov 23, 1942 Germans get trapped in the city-German commander Von Poulus ordered to fight to the death-between jan 31 and feb 2, 300,000 German troops surrender-a major turning point on the eastern … ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, OILFIELDS, STALINGRAD IN NAZIS’ 1942 CROSSHAIRS, World War II: The Definitive Visual History from Blitzkrieg to the Atom Bomb, The Secret History of World War II: Spies, Code Breakers, and Covert Operations, TIME-LIFE World War II in 500 Photographs, A Higher Call: An Incredible True Story of Combat and Chivalry in the War-Torn Skies of World War II, Code Talker: The First and Only Memoir By One of the Original Navajo Code Talkers of WWII, A Woman of No Importance: The Untold Story of the American Spy Who Helped Win World War II, Code Girls: The Untold Story of the American Women Code Breakers of World War II, Spymistress: The True Story of the Greatest Female Secret Agent of World War II, The Longest Winter: The Battle of the Bulge and the Epic Story of WWII's Most Decorated Platoon, The Liberator: One World War II Soldier's 500-Day Odyssey from the Beaches of Sicily to the Gates of Dachau. In terms of location, the city sat on the flank of the route toward the oil fields in the Caucasus region, while it was also a major … Battle of Stalingrad Summary On August 23, 1942, Hitler and General Friedrich Paulus sent out their troops to seize the oil fields in the Caucasus Mountains and the City of Stalingrad. In December of 1941, after suffering multiple losses, the Soviet Union counterattacked German forces in the Battle of Moscow, successfully … Stalin sent Soviet reinforcements but they had to cross the Volga River and many of them drowned under the weight of their clothing and weapons. German army at the Battle of Moscow. Suddenly they were faced with hand-to-hand combat, often only yards away from the enemy. If captured, the Red Army will lose 70%-90% of all its oil resources. Paulus’ Sixth Army was inex­o­rably drawn into a Soviet quag­mire from which it was nearly im­pos­sible to escape. 2: 718). The Russians could simply not afford to lose the battle. The Luft­waffe also rendered the River Volga, vital for ferrying supplies into the besieged city, un­usable to Soviet shipping. Moreover, he also wanted to take control of the fertile oil fields situated in the Caucasus. They had made great inroads into the oil fields of the Caucasus (south-west Russia) which could have fuelled the war effort. Battle of the Caucasus is similar to these military conflicts: Case Blue, Operation Little Saturn, Eastern Front (World War II) and more. Instead Hitler turned his attention to Stalingrad. Finally, the city was also named after the Soviet Union’s leader and Hitler’s hatred of Stalin meant he could not let it go unconquered. In 1942, Germany's Fall Blau was initially aimed at capturing or interdicting shipments of oil from the Caucasus to the rest of the Soviet Union. Left: Beginning on August 23, 1942, the Luft­waffe bombed Stalin­grad block-by-block for five straight days. 17 Jul 1942 - 2 Feb 1943. Disaster at Stalingrad: An Alternate History by Peter G. Tsouras enables the reader to know details about the history of the battle of Stalingrad. The great irony was that Hitler may not have needed to take Stalingrad. The Luft­waffe retained air supe­ri­ority into early Novem­ber, but after flying 20,000 in­di­vidual sorties, its ori­ginal strength of 1,600 service­able air­craft had shrunk to 950. Instead Hitler turned his attention to Stalingrad. The Battle of the Caucasus is a name given to a series of Axis and Soviet operations in the Caucasus area on the Eastern Front of World War II.On 25 July 1942, German troops captured Rostov-on-Don, Russia, opening the Caucasus region of the southern Soviet Union, and the oil fields beyond at Maikop, Grozny, and ultimately … Animated map shows the Battle of Caucasus and the Crimea. After all, the Russians had already been shocked and devastated by the German Blitzkrieg during Operation Barbarossa. House to house fight in the streets of Stalingrad. In order to encourage his army, Hitler made Paulus his Field Marshal on January 30, 1943 . Ranging from July 1942 to February 1943 the battle is considered by many historians to have been the turning point in the war in Europe. The 199-day battle for con­trol of Stalin­grad pro­duced a monu­mental two million casualties on both sides. The failure of the German army was a full-blown disaster. For the hero­ism of its defenders, Stalin­grad was one of four cities awarded the title “Hero City” in 1945. (The first had been Opera­tion Bar­ba­rossa begun the previous June, which had been in­tended to knock the Soviet Union out of the war.) For the hero­ism of its defenders, Stalin­grad was one of four cities awarded the title “Hero City” in 1945. Making steady pro­gress across the empty Ukrai­nian steppes, Army Group South (A) took the key railway junction and river port Rostov-on-Don on July 23, and then drove south to the oil­fields in the Cau­casus. Right: Stalingrad’s desperate defenders realized that their best defense con­sisted of an­choring their defense lines in numer­ous buildings. However, he had not taken into account the stand that the Russians would take in defence of the city named after their leader. Topic. Smelling blood, Presi­dent Franklin D. Roos­evelt announced at the con­clu­sion of the Casa­blanca Con­fer­ence in Morocco between himself, British Prime Minis­ter Winston Chur­chill, and their joint chiefs of staff (January 14–23, 1943) that the Allies would require nothing less than Germany’s “unconditional surrender.”. Russians consider it to be one of the greatest battles of their Great Patriotic War, and most historians consider it to be the greatest battle of the entire conflict. This meant the Germans had to face the Russian winter, where temperatures dropped well below zero. As the conditions were becoming hostile, Hitler played his last card. The Ger­mans killed 2,500 Soviet sol­diers each day, day after day, three times their losses. But Hitler underestimated the Russian army. It was also a large industrial city producing large amounts of armaments for the Soviet war effort. The great irony was that Hitler may not have needed to take Stalingrad. The summer offensive would be aimed instead at the southern USSR, especially the oil fields in the Caucasus. Hitler actually concentrated his efforts on taking the Caucasus more than he did on Stalingrad at the beginning of Operation Fall Blau, he dedicated the entire Army Group A to the conquest of the oil fields in Bakou while the Army Group B had to secure its flanks by getting deeper in Russia and securing the Volga, making it … Four out of five Soviet aircraft, tanks and trucks used in World War II ran on fuel produced in Baku refineries from oil extracted in the Baku oil fields. Dispatching some 3 or 4 million soldiers to the Eastern Front, Adolf Hitler hoped for a rapid victory.It was an all-out effort to crush the Soviet threat by capturing Ukraine to the south, the city of Leningrad — p… Undeterred, Hitler mounted “Operation Blue” in the spring of ’42 to seize both the rich oil fields in the Caucasus and the region’s rail junction and industrial center in Stalingrad. Stalin­grad proved to be a major turning point in the Euro­pean war, and for the first time the West­ern Allies began to hope the Soviets might tri­umph in their tita­nic con­fron­ta­tion with the Nazi in­vaders. One rail­way station changed hands 14 times in six hours. Hitler's decision to launch a campaign at the Caucasus regio… In addition, Germany also wanted to invade the region’s oil fields. Neither side could afford to lose the battle for city and thus it descended into one of the most bloody in the whole of the Second World War. The Battle of Stalingrad was one of the most important battles of the Second World War. Operation Barbarossa, launched in June 1941, failed to achieve Hitler's objective of decisively defeating the Soviet Union in a single campaign. The Battle of Stalin­grad bled the Ger­man Army dry and turned the war in the East deci­sively against Nazi Ger­many. Battle of Stalingrad, August 23, 1942, to February 2, 1943 On June 28 th, 1942, Operation Blau/Blue commenced with multiple German and Romanian units were to capture the Caucasus Oil Fields for a plentiful supply of fuels. June 28, 1942 On this date in 1942 on the Eastern Front, Adolf Hitler launched Ger­many’s second sum­mer cam­paign against the Soviet Union in two years. The Battle of the Caucasus is a name given to a series of Axis and Soviet operations in the Caucasus area on the Eastern Front of World War II.On 25 July 1942, German troops captured Rostov-on-Don, Russia, opening the Caucasus region of the southern Soviet Union, and the oil fields beyond at Maikop, Grozny, and ultimately … Hitler had expected the city fall quickly. The Soviet supply line along the Volga River would be a secondary objective. Operation Uranus … Nevertheless, Hitler demanded his soldiers fight to the last bullet but by January they had no choice but to surrender. In 1942, the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) launched Operation Edelweiss which was aimed at advancing to the oil fields of Azerbaijan. S01:E07 - The Battle of Stalingrad After the failure to take both Moscow and Leningrad, Hitler sets his sights on the oil fields in the Caucasus. Bitter fighting raged for every fac­tory, rubble-strewn street, house, base­ment, stair­well, and sewer. After August 25, the Soviets stopped recording civil­ian and mili­tary casu­al­ties as a result of air raids. Only 6,000 POWs lived through their ordeal to return to their homeland after the war. Despite the setbacks of the previous year, Hitler wanted to go on the offensive. The German offensive slowed as it entered the mountains in the southern Caucasus and did not reach all of its 1942 objectives. Contributor: C. Peter Chen ww2dbase The southern Russian city of Stalingrad was a major industrial city, producing tanks, among other equipment, for the Soviet war effort. Their eastern push into the Soviet Union had been so successful. It’s objective: the Soviet oil fields in the Caucasus Mountains. Left: A reconnaissance photo of a rail­way station burning in Stalin­grad, late August 1942. On August 23 Gen. Fried­rich Paulus’ Sixth Army, part of Army Group South (B), entered the out­skirts of Stalin­grad (today’s Volgo­grad), a vital manu­fac­turing and trans­port cen­ter up­stream from Rostov. It estimated that more than 800,000 Axis forces were killed, wounded or captured. The battle drained German army of its resources and after its defeat it went into full retreat in Eastern Europe. Fire­storms killed anywhere from 25,000 to 40,000 people. Leading up to the Battle of Stalingrad, the German Wehrmacht had already suffered multiple setbacks in Russia. His first task was to secure the oil fields in Caucasus. The Germans attacked Stalingrad because they prioritized getting the oil fields in the Caucasus. At the end of the war Stalingrad was In 1945 Stalingrad was officially proclaimed a Hero City of the Soviet Union for its defense of the motherland. The Germans captured the city probably the the second week in November 1942. Whilst at least initially, the Germans took control of much of the city they couldn’t fully control it. Stalingrad—situated on the Volga River, 566 miles southeast of Moscow—was a large industrial city but of limited strategic significance. Therefore, the famous city on the Volga, Stalingrad, must be "held at all costs." In order to complete this task, Hitler ordered Paulus to take Stalingrad, with the final target being Baku. The Battle of Stalin­grad bled the Ger­man Army dry and turned the war in the East deci­sively against Nazi Ger­many. ... operating in the southern extremity of the southern Russian SFSR in an effort to simultaneously capture the city of Stalingrad and the Caucasus oil fields. Wrecked buildings in Stalingrad. After the destruction of the 6th German Army, the terrifying and unstoppable advance of Hitler’s armies across Europe halted. The Ger­man armored ad­vance resembled a knife slicing through a stick of butter—a re­run it seemed of the sum­mer of 1941, when the Red Army fell apart on the first armored im­pact. Stalingrad was located in the Soviet Union and was a major industrial center. The average life-expectancy of a Soviet private soldier during the battle of Stalingrad was just 24 hours. In the spring of 1941 the Armed Forces High Command activated the so-called Oil Detachment Caucasus for the purpose of taking over the oil fields. That same day a mas­sive Ger­man air raid on Stalin­grad caused a fire­storm that killed thou­sands of civil­ians and turned the city of 900,000 res­i­dents into a land­scape of rubble and burned ruins. 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